EV charging mode 1
In this mode, the EV is connected directly to a home socket. The maximum current of this mode is 16 A, and for single-phase systems the voltage should not exceed 250 V. For three-phase networks, the voltage should not exceed 480V.
The EV connects to the basic structure of a household socket.
Mode 1 is the simplest charging mode and does not support any communication between the EV charging cable and the charging point. This charging method is banned or restricted in many countries/regions.
EV charging mode 2
Household sockets do not always provide power according to actual standards. In addition, sockets and plugs designed specifically for home applications may not be able to withstand continuous current consumption at maximum ratings.
That's why connecting an EV charging cable to a socket without controls and safety features for an extended period of time increases the risk of electric shock. To solve this problem, the experts developed Charging Mode 2. Mode 2 ev charging uses a special EV charging cable. Such mode 2 ev charging cable is equipped with an in-cable control and protection device (IC-CPD). The safety features of this mode can detect and monitor protective grounding.
While Mode 2 EV charging can be used for private billing, its public use is restricted in many countries/regions.
EV charging mode 3
This mode utilizes dedicated EVSE and EV car chargers. An alternating current from the charging station is applied to the on-board circuit to charge the battery. Several control and protection functions are used to ensure public safety. This includes the verification of protective ground connections and connections between EVSE and EV.
In addition, this mode adjusts the charging current to the maximum current capacity of the cable assembly. The maximum current in this charging mode is 32A for 250 V 1-phase or 480 V 3-phase networks. It also supports a mode 2 compatible operating mode where the maximum current is limited to less than 32A in both phase 1 and phase 3.
EV charging mode 4
This is the only charging mode that combines a non-on-board charger with a DC output. DC current is sent directly to the battery and bypassed to the car charger. This mode provides A maximum current of 600V DC 400A. The high power levels involved in this mode require higher levels of communication and more stringent security features.